Drugs of Abuse/Uses and Effects

U.S. Department of Justice Drug Enforcement Administration

NARCOTICS

HEROIN

  • CSA Schedules: Substance I
  • Trade or Other Names: Diamorphine, Horse, Smack, Black tar, Chiva, Negra (black tar)
  • Medical Uses: None in U.S., Analgesic, Antitussive
  • Dependence
    • Physical: High
    • Psychological: High
    • Tolerance: Yes
  • Duration (Hours): 3-4
  • Usual Method: Injected, snorted, smoked
  • Possible Effects: Euphoria, drowsiness, respiratory depression, constricted pupils, nausea
  • Effects of Overdose: Slow and shallow breathing, clammy skin, convulsions, coma, possible death
  • Withdrawal Syndrome: Watery eyes, runny nose, yawning, loss of appetite, irritability, tremors, panic, cramps, nausea, chills and sweating

MORPHINE

  • CSA Schedules: Substance II
  • Trade or Other Names: MS-Contin, Roxanol, Oramorph SR, MSIR
  • Medical Uses: Analgesic
  • Dependence
    • Physical: High
    • Psychological: High
    • Tolerance: Yes
  • Duration (Hours): 3-12
  • Usual Method: Oral, injected
  • Possible Effects: Euphoria, drowsiness, respiratory depression, constricted pupils, nausea
  • Effects of Overdose: Slow and shallow breathing, clammy skin, convulsions, coma, possible death
  • Withdrawal Syndrome: Watery eyes, runny nose, yawning, loss of appetite, irritability, tremors, panic, cramps, nausea, chills and sweating

HYDROCODONE

  • CSA Schedules: Substance II, Product III, V
  • Trade or Other Names: Hydrocodone w/ Acetaminophen, Vicodin, Vicoprofen, Tussionex, Lortab
  • Medical Uses: Analgesic, Antitussive
  • Dependence
    • Physical: High
    • Psychological: High
    • Tolerance: Yes
  • Duration (Hours): 3-6
  • Usual Method: Oral
  • Possible Effects: Euphoria, drowsiness, respiratory depression, constricted pupils, nausea
  • Effects of Overdose: Slow and shallow breathing, clammy skin, convulsions, coma, possible death
  • Withdrawal Syndrome: Watery eyes, runny nose, yawning, loss of appetite, irritability, tremors, panic, cramps, nausea, chills and sweating

HYDRO-MORPHONE

  • CSA Schedules: Substance II
  • Trade or Other Names: Dilaudid
  • Medical Uses: Analgesic
  • Dependence
    • Physical: High
    • Psychological: High
    • Tolerance: Yes
  • Duration (Hours): 3-4
  • Usual Method: Oral, injected
  • Possible Effects: Euphoria, drowsiness, respiratory depression, constricted pupils, nausea
  • Effects of Overdose: Slow and shallow breathing, clammy skin, convulsions, coma, possible death
  • Withdrawal Syndrome: Watery eyes, runny nose, yawning, loss of appetite, irritability, tremors, panic, cramps, nausea, chills and sweating

OXYCODONE

  • CSA Schedules: Substance II
  • Trade or Other Names: Roxicet, Oxycodone w/ Acetaminophen, OxyContin, Endocet, Percocet, Percodan
  • Medical Uses: Analgesic
  • Dependence
    • Physical: High
    • Psychological: High
    • Tolerance: Yes
  • Duration (Hours): 3-12
  • Usual Method: Oral
  • Possible Effects: Euphoria, drowsiness, respiratory depression, constricted pupils, nausea
  • Effects of Overdose: Slow and shallow breathing, clammy skin, convulsions, coma, possible death
  • Withdrawal Syndrome: Watery eyes, runny nose, yawning, loss of appetite, irritability, tremors, panic, cramps, nausea, chills and sweating

CODEINE

  • CSA Schedules: Substance II, Products III, V
  • Trade or Other Names:  Acetaminophen, Guaifenesin or Promethazine w/Codeine, Fiorinal, Fioricet or Tylenol w/Codeine
  • Medical Uses: Analgesic, Antitussive
  • Dependence
    • Physical: Moderate
    • Psychological: Moderate
    • Tolerance: Yes
  • Duration (Hours): 3-4
  • Usual Method: Oral, injected
  • Possible Effects: Euphoria, drowsiness, respiratory depression, constricted pupils, nausea
  • Effects of Overdose: Slow and shallow breathing, clammy skin, convulsions, coma, possible death
  • Withdrawal Syndrome: Watery eyes, runny nose, yawning, loss of appetite, irritability, tremors, panic, cramps, nausea, chills and sweating

OTHER NARCOTICS

  • CSA Schedules: Substance II, III, IV
  • Trade or Other Names:  Fentanyl, Demerol, Methadone, Darvon, Stadol, Talwin, Paregoric, Buprenex
  • Medical Uses: Analgesic, Antidiarrheal, Antitussive
  • Dependence
    • Physical: High-Low
    • Psychological: High-Low
    • Tolerance: Yes
  • Duration (Hours): Variable
  • Usual Method: Oral, injected, snorted, smoked
  • Possible Effects: Euphoria, drowsiness, respiratory depression, constricted pupils, nausea
  • Effects of Overdose: Slow and shallow breathing, clammy skin, convulsions, coma, possible death
  • Withdrawal Syndrome: Watery eyes, runny nose, yawning, loss of appetite, irritability, tremors, panic, cramps, nausea, chills and sweating

DEPRESSANTS

GAMMA HYDROXBUTYRIC ACID

  • CSA Schedules: Substance I, Product III
  • Trade or Other Names: GHB, Liquid Ecstasy, Liquid X, Sodium Oxybate, Xyrem®
  • Medical Uses: None in U.S., Anesthetic
  • Dependence
    • Physical: Moderate
    • Psychological: Moderate
    • Tolerance: Yes
  • Duration (Hours): 3-6
  • Usual Method: Oral
  • Possible Effects: Slurred speech, disorientation, drunken behavior without odor of alcohol, impaired memory of events, interacts with alcohol
  • Effects of Overdose: Shallow respiration, clammy skin, dilated pupils, weak and rapid pulse, coma, possible death
  • Withdrawal Syndrome:  Anxiety, insomnia, tremors, delirium, convulsions, possible death

BENZODIAZEPINES

  • CSA Schedules: Substance IV
  • Trade or Other Names: Valium, Xanax, Halcion, Ativan, Restoril, Rohypnol (Roofies, R-2), Klonopin
  • Medical Uses: Antianxiety, Sedative, Anticonvulsant, Hypnotic, Muscle Relaxant
  • Dependence
    • Physical: Moderate
    • Psychological: Moderate
    • Tolerance: Yes
  • Duration (Hours): 1-8
  • Usual Method: Oral, injected
  • Possible Effects: Slurred speech, disorientation, drunken behavior without odor of alcohol, impaired memory of events, interacts with alcohol
  • Effects of Overdose: Shallow respiration, clammy skin, dilated pupils, weak and rapid pulse, coma, possible death
  • Withdrawal Syndrome:  Anxiety, insomnia, tremors, delirium, convulsions, possible death

OTHER DEPRESSANTS

  • CSA Schedules: Substance I, II, III, IV
  • Trade or Other Names: Ambien, Sonata, Meprobamate, Chloral Hydrate, Barbiturates, Methaqualone (Quaalude)
  • Medical Uses: Antianxiety, Sedative, Hypnotic
  • Dependence
    • Physical: Moderate
    • Psychological: Moderate
    • Tolerance: Yes
  • Duration (Hours): 2-6
  • Usual Method: Oral
  • Possible Effects: Slurred speech, disorientation, drunken behavior without odor of alcohol, impaired memory of events, interacts with alcohol
  • Effects of Overdose: Shallow respiration, clammy skin, dilated pupils, weak and rapid pulse, coma, possible death
  • Withdrawal Syndrome:  Anxiety, insomnia, tremors, delirium, convulsions, possible death

STIMULANTS

COCAINE

  • CSA Schedules: Substance II
  • Trade or Other Names: Coke, Flake, Snow, Crack, Coca, Blanca, Perico, Nieve, Soda
  • Medical Uses: Local anesthetic
  • Dependence
    • Physical: Possible
    • Psychological: High
    • Tolerance: Yes
  • Duration (Hours): 1-2
  • Usual Method: Snorted, smoked, injected
  • Possible Effects: Increased alertness, excitation, euphoria, increased pulse rate & blood pressure, insomnia, loss of appetite
  • Effects of Overdose: Agitation, increased body temperature, hallucinations, convulsions, possible death
  • Withdrawal Syndrome: Apathy, long periods of sleep, irritability, depression, disorientation

AMPHETAMINE/METH-AMPHETAMINE

  • CSA Schedules: Substance II
  • Trade or Other Names: Crank, Ice, Cristal, Krystal Meth, Speed, Adderall, Dexedrine, Desoxyn
  • Medical Uses: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, narcolepsy, weight control
  • Dependence
    • Physical: Possible
    • Psychological: High
    • Tolerance: Yes
  • Duration (Hours): 2-4
  • Usual Method: Oral, injected, smoked
  • Possible Effects: Increased alertness, excitation, euphoria, increased pulse rate & blood pressure, insomnia, loss of appetite
  • Effects of Overdose: Agitation, increased body temperature, hallucinations, convulsions, possible death
  • Withdrawal Syndrome: Apathy, long periods of sleep, irritability, depression, disorientation

METHYLPHENIDATE

  • CSA Schedules: Substance II
  • Trade or Other Names: Ritalin (Illy's), Concerta, Focalin, Metadate
  • Medical Uses: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
  • Dependence
    • Physical: Possible
    • Psychological: High
    • Tolerance: Yes
  • Duration (Hours): 2-4
  • Usual Method: Oral, injected, snorted, smoked
  • Possible Effects: Increased alertness, excitation, euphoria, increased pulse rate & blood pressure, insomnia, loss of appetite
  • Effects of Overdose: Agitation, increased body temperature, hallucinations, convulsions, possible death
  • Withdrawal Syndrome: Apathy, long periods of sleep, irritability, depression, disorientation

OTHER STIMULANTS

  • CSA Schedules: Substance III, IV
  • Trade or Other Names: Adipex P, Ionamin, Prelu-2, Didrex, Provigil
  • Medical Uses: Vasoconstriction
  • Dependence
    • Physical: Possible
    • Psychological: Moderate
    • Tolerance: Yes
  • Duration (Hours): 2-4
  • Usual Method: Oral
  • Possible Effects: Increased alertness, excitation, euphoria, increased pulse rate & blood pressure, insomnia, loss of appetite
  • Effects of Overdose: Agitation, increased body temperature, hallucinations, convulsions, possible death
  • Withdrawal Syndrome: Apathy, long periods of sleep, irritability, depression, disorientation

HALLUCINOGENS

MDMA AND ANALOGS

  • CSA Schedules: Substance I
  • Trade or Other Names: (Ecstasy, XTC, Adam), MDA (Love Drug), MDEA (Eve), MBDB
  • Medical Uses: None
  • Dependence
    • Physical: None
    • Psychological: Moderate
    • Tolerance: Yes
  • Duration (Hours): 4-6
  • Usual Method: Oral, snorted, smoked
  • Possible Effects: Heightened senses, teeth grinding and dehydration
  • Effects of Overdose: Increased body temperature, electrolyte imbalance, cardiac arrest
  • Withdrawal Syndrome: Muscle aches, drowsiness, depression, acne

LSD

  • CSA Schedules: Substance I
  • Trade or Other Names: Acid, Microdot, Sunshine, Boomers
  • Medical Uses: None
  • Dependence
    • Physical: None
    • Psychological: Unknown
    • Tolerance: Yes
  • Duration (Hours): 8-12
  • Usual Method: Oral
  • Possible Effects:  Illusions and hallucinations, altered perception of time and distance
  • Effects of Overdose: (LSD) Longer, more intense "trip" episodes
  • Withdrawal Syndrome: None

PHENCYCLIDINE AND ANALOGS

  • CSA Schedules: Substance I, II, III
  • Trade or Other Names: PCP, Angel Dust, Hog, Loveboat, Ketamine (Special K), PCE, PCPy, TCP
  • Medical Uses: Anesthetic (Ketamine)
  • Dependence
    • Physical: Possible
    • Psychological: High
    • Tolerance: Yes
  • Duration (Hours): 1-12
  • Usual Method: Smoked, oral, injected, snorted
  • Possible Effects:  Illusions and hallucinations, altered perception of time and distance
  • Effects of Overdose: Unable to direct movement, feel pain, or remember
  • Withdrawal Syndrome: Drug seeking behavior *Not regulated

OTHER HALLUCINOGENS

  • CSA Schedules: Substance I
  • Trade or Other Names: Psilocybe mushrooms, Mescaline, Peyote Cactus, Ayahausca, DMT, Dextromethorphan* (DXM)
  • Medical Uses: None
  • Dependence
    • Physical: None
    • Psychological: None
    • Tolerance: Possible
  • Duration (Hours): 4-8
  • Usual Method: Oral
  • Possible Effects:  Illusions and hallucinations, altered perception of time and distance
  • Effects of Overdose: Unable to direct movement, feel pain, or remember
  • Withdrawal Syndrome: Drug seeking behavior *Not regulated

CANNABIS

MARIJUANA

  • CSA Schedules: Substance I
  • Trade or Other Names: Pot, Grass, Sinsemilla, Blunts, Mota, Yerba, Grifa
  • Medical Uses: None
  • Dependence
    • Physical: Unknown
    • Psychological: Moderate
    • Tolerance: Yes
  • Duration (Hours): 2-4
  • Usual Method: Smoked, oral
  • Possible Effects: Euphoria, relaxed inhibitions, increased appetite, disorientation
  • Effects of Overdose: Fatigue, paranoia, possible psychosis
  • Withdrawal Syndrome:  Occasional reports of insomnia, hyperactivity, decreased appetite

TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL

  • CSA Schedules: Substance I, Product III
  • Trade or Other Names: THC, Marinol
  • Medical Uses: Antinauseant, Appetite stimulant
  • Dependence
    • Physical: Yes
    • Psychological: Moderate
    • Tolerance: Yes
  • Duration (Hours): 2-4
  • Usual Method: Smoked, oral
  • Possible Effects: Euphoria, relaxed inhibitions, increased appetite, disorientation
  • Effects of Overdose: Fatigue, paranoia, possible psychosis
  • Withdrawal Syndrome:  Occasional reports of insomnia, hyperactivity, decreased appetite

HASHISH AND HASHISH OIL

  • CSA Schedules: Substance I
  • Trade or Other Names: Hash, Hash oil
  • Medical Uses: None
  • Dependence
    • Physical: Unknown
    • Psychological: Moderate
    • Tolerance: Yes
  • Duration (Hours): 2-4
  • Usual Method: Smoked, oral
  • Possible Effects: Euphoria, relaxed inhibitions, increased appetite, disorientation
  • Effects of Overdose: Fatigue, paranoia, possible psychosis
  • Withdrawal Syndrome:  Occasional reports of insomnia, hyperactivity, decreased appetite

ANABOLIC STEROIDS

TESTOSTERONE

  • CSA Schedules: Substance III
  • Trade or Other Names: Depo Testosterone, Sustanon, Sten, Cypt
  • Medical Uses: Hypogonadism
  • Dependence
    • Physical: Unknown
    • Psychological: Unknown
    • Tolerance: Unknown
  • Duration (Hours): 14-28 days
  • Usual Method: Injected
  • Possible Effects: Virilization, edema, testicular atrophy, gynecomastia, acne, aggressive behavior
  • Effects of Overdose: Unknown
  • Withdrawal Syndrome:  Possible depression

OTHER ANABOLIC STEROIDS

  • CSA Schedules: Substance III
  • Trade or Other Names: Parabolan, Winstrol, Equipose, Anadrol, Dianabol, Primabolin-Depo, DBall
  • Medical Uses: Anemia, Breast cancer
  • Dependence
    • Physical: Unknown
    • Psychological: Yes
    • Tolerance: Unknown
  • Duration (Hours): Variable
  • Usual Method: Oral, injected
  • Possible Effects: Virilization, edema, testicular atrophy, gynecomastia, acne, aggressive behavior
  • Effects of Overdose: Unknown
  • Withdrawal Syndrome:  Possible depression

INHALANTS

AMYL AND BUTYL NITRATES

  • Trade or Other Names: Pearls, Poppers, Rush, Locker Room
  • Medical Uses: Angina (Amyl)
  • Dependence
    • Physical: Unknown
    • Psychological: Unknown
    • Tolerance: No
  • Duration (Hours): 1
  • Usual Method: Inhaled
  • Possible Effects: Flushing, hypotension, headache
  • Effects of Overdose: Methemoglobinemia
  • Withdrawal Syndrome:  Agitation

NITROUS OXIDE

  • Trade or Other Names: Laughing gas, balloons, Whippets
  • Medical Uses: Anesthetic
  • Dependence
    • Physical: Unknown
    • Psychological: Low
    • Tolerance: No
  • Duration (Hours): 0.5
  • Usual Method: Inhaled
  • Possible Effects: Impaired memory, slurred speech, drunken behavior, slow onset vitamin deficiency, organ damage
  • Effects of Overdose: Vomiting, respiratory depression, loss of consciousness, possible death
  • Withdrawal Syndrome:  Trembling, anxiety, insomnia, vitamin deficiency, confusion, hallucinations, convulsions

OTHER INHALANTS

  • Trade or Other Names: Adhesives, spray paint, hair spray, dry cleaning fluid, spot remover, lighter fluid
  • Medical Uses: None
  • Dependence
    • Physical: Unknown
    • Psychological: High
    • Tolerance: No
  • Duration (Hours): 0.5-2
  • Usual Method: Inhaled
  • Possible Effects: Impaired memory, slurred speech, drunken behavior, slow onset vitamin deficiency, organ damage
  • Effects of Overdose: Vomiting, respiratory depression, loss of consciousness, possible death
  • Withdrawal Syndrome:  Trembling, anxiety, insomnia, vitamin deficiency, confusion, hallucinations, convulsions

ALCOHOL

  • Trade or Other Names: Beer, wine, liquor
  • Medical Uses: None
  • Dependence
    • Physical: High
    • Psychological: High
    • Tolerance: Yes
  • Duration (Hours): 1-3
  • Usual Method: Oral
  • Possible Effects: Impaired memory, slurred speech, drunken behavior, slow onset vitamin deficiency, organ damage
  • Effects of Overdose: Vomiting, respiratory depression, loss of consciousness, possible death
  • Withdrawal Syndrome:  Trembling, anxiety, insomnia, vitamin deficiency, confusion, hallucinations, convulsions

Details

Article ID: 24495
Created
Wed 2/8/17 7:09 AM
Modified
Wed 2/8/17 9:01 AM